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  Commonly Cited Lifetime Tester Papers

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D.E. Kane, and R.M. Swanson, "Measurement of the Emitter Saturation Current by a Contactless Photoconductivity Decay Method," Proc of the 18th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, pp. 578-583, 1985.

Classic reference for a method to separate bulk recombination from dopant diffusion recombination on lightly-doped wafers using the injection-level dependence of lifetime.
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R.A. Sinton, and R.M. Swanson, "Recombination in highly injected silicon (solar cells)," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (USA), vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1380-9, Jun 1987. download PDF of paper (296 KB)
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Determination of the ambipolar recombination coefficient at 1.66e-30 cm6/s +or-15%.
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R.A. Sinton, A. Cuevas, and M. Stuckings, "Quasi-Steady-State Photoconductance, A New Method for Solar Cell Material and Device Characterization," Proc of the 25th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, pp. 457-460, 1996. download PDF of paper (404 KB)
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First major reference for QSSPC photoconductance method.

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A.S. Cuevas, and R.A. Sinton, "Prediction of the open-circuit voltage of solar cells from the steady-state photoconductance," Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 79-90, Mar.-Apr. 1997.
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Tutorial-style paper concerning applications of QSSPC measurements to solar cells.

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D.K. Schroder, "Carrier Lifetimes in Silicon," IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 160-170, 1997.
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C. Berge, J. Schmidt, B. Lenkeit, H. Nagel, and A.G. Aberle, "Comparison of Effective Carrier Lifetimes in Silicon Determined by Transient and Quasi-Steady-State Photoconductance Measurements," 2nd World Conference on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion, pp. 1426-1429, 1998.
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H. Nagel, C. Berge, and A.G. Aberle, "Generalized analysis of quasi-steady-state and quasi-transient measurements of carrier lifetimes in semiconductors," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 86, no. 11, pp. 6218-6221, Dec 1999.
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The math for analyzing data using the fully time dependent solutions rather than the steady-state or transient limits.
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J. Schmidt, "Measurement of differential and actual recombination parameters on crystalline silicon wafers," IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 46, no. 10, pp. 2018-2025, Oct. 1999.
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M. Bail, and R. Brendel, "Separation of Bulk and Surface Recombination by Steady State Photoconductance Measurements," Proc of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, May 2000.
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A very nice application note for using 2 wavelengths of light for separating surface and bulk recombination.
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A. Cuevas, M. Kerr, D. Macdonald, and R.A. Sinton, "Emitter quantum efficiency from contactless photoconductance measurements," Conference Record of the Twenty-Eighth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, pp. 108-11, Sep 2000.
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D. MacDonald, and A. Cuevas, "Reduced fill factors in multicrystalline silicon solar cells due to injection-level dependent bulk recombination lifetimes," Progress in Photovoltaics, vol. 8, pp. 363-375, 2000.
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Describes how changes in the bulk lifetime will lower the fill factor of multicrystalline silicon solar cells.
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H. Nagel, B. Lenkeit, R.A. Sinton, A. Metz, and R. Hezel, "Relationship between effective carrier lifetimes in silicon determined under steady-state and transient illumination," Proc of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, 2000.
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A. Castaldini, D. Cavalcoli, A. Cavallini, M. Rossi, M. Spiegel, and T. Pernau, "Minority Carrier Lifetimes of Multicrystalline SI Obtained from Different Methods: A Comparison," 17th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, pp. 1921-1924, Oct 2001.
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R. Lago-Aurrekoetxea, I. Tobias, C. del Canizo, et al., "Lifetime measurements by photoconductance techniques in wafers immersed in a passivating liquid," Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 148, no. 4, pp. G200-G206, Apr. 2001.
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D.H. Neuhaus, P.P. Altermatt, A.B. Sproul, R.A. Sinton, A. Schenk, A. Wang, and A.G. Aberle, "Method for measuring minority and majority carrier mobilities in solar cells wafers passivated with hydrogenated amorphous silicon films," 17th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, pp. 242-245, Oct 2001.
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R. Brendel, M. Bail, B. Bodmann, et al., "Analysis of photoexcited charge carrier density profiles in Si wafers by using an infrared camera," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 80, no. 3, pp. 437-439, Jan 2002.
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S. Rein, P. Lichtner, W. Warta, and S.W. Glunz, "Advanced Defect Characterization by Combining Temperature- and Injection-Dependent Lifetime Spectroscopy (TDLA and IDLS)," Conference Record of the Twenty Ninth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, pp. 190-193, 2002.
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S. Rein, T. Rehrl, W. Warta, and S. W. Glunz, "Lifetime spectroscopy for defect characterization: Systematic analysis of the possibilities and restrictions," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 2059, Feb 2002.
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A. Cuevas, and R. Sinton, "Characterization and Diagnosis of Silicon Wafers and Devices," Practical Handbook of Photovoltaics: Fundamentals and Applications, Tom Markvart and Luis Castaner, Editors, Elsevier, Ltd., 2003.
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Overview of QSSPC analysis and applications in a handbook format.
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J. Schmidt, "Temperature- and injection-dependent lifetime spectroscopy for the characterization of defect centers in semiconductors," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 82, no. 13, pp. 2178-2180, Mar 2003.
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Generalization of QSSPC for temperature-dependent measurements.
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D. H. Macdonald, L. J. Geerligs, and A. Azzizi, "Iron detection in crystalline silicon by carrier lifetime measurements for arbitrary injection and doping," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 1021, Feb 2004.
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A model application for QSSPC to study SRH bulk recombination with practical implications. Uses the lifetime tester to measure the iron concentration in silicon.
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R. A. Sinton, T. Mankad, S. Bowden, and N. Enjalbert, "Evaluating Silicon Blocks and Ingots With Quasi-Steady-State Lifetime Measurements," 19th European Photovoltaic Energy Conference, 2004. download PDF of paper (320 KB)
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Demonstrates how to measure iron concentration in silicon blocks and determine how the wafers will perform during processing.
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Commonly cited Suns-Voc papers
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